From the very beginning of our analysis of Win32/Flamer it was clear that this was an extremely sophisticated piece of malware which we had never seen before. It implements extremely elaborate programming logic and has an intricate internal structure. At the heart of Flame’s modularity lies a carefully designed architecture allowing all its components interoperability without causing any incompatibilities. In this blog post we will concentrate mainly on the internal architecture of the mssecmgr.ocx module (Flame, Duqu and Stuxnet: in-depth code analysis of mssecmgr.ocx). In the course of our research we analysed several different versions of mssecmgr.ocx and found specific architectural similarities that allow us to reconstruct Flame’s framework.
Flame’s main module consists of objects that each implement specific functionality: gathering information on the compromised system; infecting other computers; communicating with C&C, and so on. These objects are split into certain groups according to functionality and are managed correspondingly. The objects belonging to specific classes are inserted into a vector – that’s a C++ STL (Standard Template Library) type, not an infection vector – as shown on the diagram below:
Figure 1 – Flame Framework diagram
Here is the list of different types of objects implemented in mssecmgr.ocx:
- Command Executers – these objects expose an interface that allows the malware to dispatch commands received from C&C servers;
- Tasks – objects of this type represent tasks executed in separate threads that constitute the backbone of the main module;
- Consumers – objects which are triggered by specific events (creation of new modules, insertion of removable media and so on.);
- Delayed Tasks – these objects represent tasks which are executed periodically with a scheduled delay.
The set of objects described above constitute the Flame framework. The approach looks very similar to a “Command” object-oriented design pattern. It is worth mentioning that Stuxnet and Duqu made heavy use of lists (another C++ STL type) to manage objects. Flame, however, relies on vectors.
During our Flame analysis we found out that different versions of the malware’s main modules implement different framework objects in all vectors, as reflected in the two tables below.
Table 1- Command Executers Objects in different version of mssecmg.ocx
Table 2 – Tasks objects in different version of mssecmg.ocx
From the tables above it is evident that the malware has evolved over time and its functionality has been significantly extended. Some components that may have been implemented previously as separate modules are incorporated into the main module by later versions.
Task objects implement the general functionality of the framework. There are two tasks (among others) that exist in every version of Flame main module,:
- IDLER task
- CommandExecuter task.
The purpose of the IDLER task is to handle delayed tasks. It runs periodically through the delayed tasks vector and executes its elements as shown in figure 1.
The CommandExecuter task is responsible for retrieving and executing commands from the malware’s configuration information using objects from the corresponding vector:
Figure 2 – Command Executer Routine
Consumers constitute another set of objects implemented in the Flame framework. These objects are inserted into the corresponding vector during initialization and are triggered when a specific event happens. Thus, Flame designers employ an event-driven model that allows Flame to achieve certain goals. Since the malware is intended for gathering information from the infected system this architecture is very efficient. Consumers such as the following are implemented:
- process consumers – these are notified when an application is run;
- volume consumers – these are notified when a new volume appears in the system;
- removable media consumers – react to removable media events;
- mobile devices consumers – react to mobile device events;
- consumers for Bluetooth adapter etc.
When an event takes place on the system a specific trigger is created which fires the corresponding consumer, which in turn takes an appropriate action: infects media, copies files from removable media, activates a Bluetooth adapter, and so on.
Command executers are responsible for handling commands received from C&C servers. These are objects that implement a specific interface described below:
The CommandExecuter task is responsible for handling commands received from C&C server. The commands are stored in a special repository within the Flame configuration information under the key CMD_QUEUE:
Figure 3 – Executing commands
The commands are formatted as compressed binary data. While decoding the commands Flame decompresses the data and splits the commands into blocks. Each block is handled by a specific command executer object identified by its own ID number. The screenshot in the figure below presents the interface of a command executer object:
Figure 4 – Interface of command executer object
Once the command executer is identified the CmdExecuter_Dispatch method is called to handle command information. Different command dispatchers are able to accomplish different actions. For instance the DbQuery command dispatcher is used to execute SQL queries to the SQL Lite database maintained by the malware.
Commands may also be stored in files in specific directories for which the malware scans. There is a special task object CommandFileFinder whose purpose is to look for files in specific directories and load the contents of these files into the command data repository stored in configuration information. This helps the malware send commands to the machines that don’t have a direct connection with C&C servers.
SQL Lite database & Lua
As already pointed out Flame uses a SQL Lite relational database to store all the information (sKyWIper (a.k.a. Flame a.k.a. Flamer)) it gathers on the infected system as well as supplemental data which facilitate Flame’s propagation within a targeted system. In the figure below you can see the database schemas reconstructed in the course of research with a brief description:
Figure 5 – Flame database schema
Figure 6 – Flame database schema
Another interesting feature of the Flamer malware is the use of the LUA scripting engine to perform certain supplemental operations. The following table summarizes information about different scripts extracted from Flame configuration information.
Special thanks to our colleague Maxim Grigoryev.
Eugene Rodionov, Malware Researcher
Aleksandr Matrosov, Security Intelligence Team Lead
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